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Blunt Injury Abdomen Dissertation

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Cheetah . Introduction to species. Cheetahs are classified in the family Felidae, subfamily Acinonychinae as the genus Acynonyx, and species jubatus.The genus contains a single living species.

Blunt Injury Abdomen Dissertation

Senile cataract, senile degeneration of macula. Lüttgaus results indicated that uv rays induce a decrease in membrane sodium permeability, consistent with the possibility of membrane injury. In 1971, fork (157) used violet-blue and green laser light to stimulate action potentials in slug neurons without causing permanent damage to the cells.

When it became clear that uv radiation is a component of sunlight, there was much interest in whether it might be responsible for some of the effects of sunlight on living organisms. Shortly thereafter, wittich (160) reported that frog skin became lighter in sunlight, the opposite of chameleons. In spite of these observations, many health professionals, especially those working at the finsen light institute, continued to extol the virtues of heliotherapy as long as protective eyewear was used.

In 1875, von platen (112) found that illumination of the frog retina stimulated oxygen uptake, co production, and increased metabolism. The potential for commercial and industrial applications shifted the focus to development of new sources (fluorescent lamps, photoflash lamps, stroboscopes, lasers, advanced photon source) and better devices for measuring it (filters, detectors, spectrometers). Sur la perception des radiations lumineuses par la peau, chez les protees aveugles des grottes de la carniole.

He also made similar observations of structures in a frog, chick, and carp. Pelling (1994) increase in p53 protein half-life in mouse keratinocytes following uv-b irradiation. In 1928, earle (250, 251) found that illumination of cultured mammalian cells (fibroblasts and white blood cells) through a microscope was toxic if red blood cells were present.

Sargent & briggs (328) demonstrated that violet-blue light altered the circadian rhythm of (slime mold) avoided violet-blue light. For centuries, conventional wisdom assumed that the warmth of sunlight simply accelerated the natural growth and healing powers of the body. In situ hydrogen peroxide production may account for a portion of nuv (300-400 nm) inactivation of stationary phase escherichia coli.

Hill (1924) the effects of light upon leucocytes and blood-vessels in the mesentery of the living animal. In 1845, schmarda (256) reported that microorganisms found in stagnant water displayed different responses to light. In 1815, loebel (32) used facial irradiation to heal a case of amaurosis (partial blindness caused by disease of the optic nerve), and in 1845, bonnet (33) reported that sunlight could be used to treat tuberculosis arthritis (bacterial infection of the joints). Schmarda (1845) der einfluss des lichtes auf die infusionsthierchen. De linfluence de la lumiere coloree dans le traitement de la folie.

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Blunt Injury Abdomen Dissertation

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Blunt Injury Abdomen Dissertation Although these studies did not control for other environmental variables (e. They adopted the term near uv to refer to solar uv that reaches the earths surface, i. While investigating the cause of the toxicity, he found that neither the light nor the dye was toxic when given alone. Juul (1932) influence of ultraviolet rays upon mitosis in tissue cultures. Erytheme produit par laction de la lumiere electrique. This eventually led to the notion of nucleotide excision repair (306). There was also compelling evidence from animal studies that supported these claims (see below). Koch (261) reported that sunlight killed the tubercle bacillus.
  • A History of Ultraviolet Photobiology

    At high doses, there was edema and purulent exudation in the cornea and iris. The possibility that sunlight and artificial sources of uv radiation might be harmful to non-human animals did not arise in force until the 20th century. Their advice was bolstered by a growing list of diseases that could be treated with heliotherapy including verrucose tuberculides, lupus erythematosus, alopcia areata, acne vulgaris, and naevus vascularis planus (50). Schmarda (1845) der einfluss des lichtes auf die infusionsthierchen. Bce), pliny the elder (23-79 ce), galen (130-200 ce), antyllus (3rd cent.

    Elements of general radio-therapy for practitioners (english translation by g. They determined that the lower limit reaching the earths surface was between 291. Activation of mammalian gene expression by the uv component of sunlight - from models to reality. In 1876, fubini (137) showed that blinded frogs put on more weight than normal frogs when both were raised under identical lighting conditions. Annals of the missouri botanical garden 32, 125-129.

    Effects of ultraviolet on electrical properties of invertebrate nerve. Effect of exposure to the sun on the circulating lymphocytes in man. Using daily dosages equivalent to the threshold dose for erythema production in untanned human skin, he found that the peak carcinogenic response occurred at 310 nm. To test this idea, von tappeiner & jesionek (254) used topical eosin and light exposure to treat human skin tumors. Einflüsse der ernährung und der umwelt auf wach sende tiere. In 1956, schlegel (323) showed that purple bacteria, which are normally attracted to light, are negatively phototaxic if the intensity is too high. In 1995, amir & robinson (184) showed that uva rays are capable of inducing phase shifts in the expression of a transcription factor (fos) in the hypothalamus of the rat. Some searched for it others fled from it some grew in it others were damaged by it. Moycho (1914) action des rayons ultraviolets monochromatique sur les tissues. In 1876, ponza (40) reported that light therapy was beneficial for treating patients with mental illness.

    HISTORY OF ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOBIOLOGY Philip E. Hockberger Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine Department of Physiology, M211 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611-3008, USA

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